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Quote of the day: The aspect of Italy would have struck hi
Iran in Roman times. People from Iran

Before Roman times Iran was named Persia, and was an important state. Kings of that time are called the Achaemenids. They fought famous wars with Athens etc., but they are only mentioned here if they are referred to in documents dealing mainly with Roman history.

Alexander the Great destroyed the Persian empire and its people became a part of the Seleucid kingdom. In 247/48 BC the Arsacids revolted and created a Parthian kingdom. See further Parthia

This list is far from complete.
There is not always an 1:1 relation between a place etc. in Roman times and a name in our days.
Sometimes a people giving their name to a place and that place are combined.
Some names are followed by a link to a site with that title
I tried to find suitable sites in English, but did not always succeed.
If you know better sites, please let me know.
Beit Aramage(0)
Beit Arsam(0)
Elymaeans(2) / Elymais(0)
Hamadan(0) / Ecbatana(1)
Iran(0) / Iranian(0) / Iranians(0)
Media(3) / Madian(1) / Mede(2) / Medes(15) / Median(6)
Parthia(34) / Parthi(1) / Parthian(25) / Parthians(86) / Parthinian(1)
Persia(3) / Persian(6) / Persians(8) / Persis(1)
Satrapenians(1) / Atropateni(0)