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Quote of the day: A shudder comes over my soul, whenever I
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History of Rome (Ab Urbe Condita) by Livy
Translated by Rev. Canon Roberts
Book III Chapter 65: Fresh Internal Dissensions.[449-7 BC]
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The new tribunes of the plebs studied the wishes of the senate in co-opting colleagues; they even admitted two patricians of consular rank Spurius Tarpeius and Aulus Aeternius. The new consuls were Spurius Herminius and Titus Verginius Caelimontanus, who were not violent partisans of either the patricians or the plebeians. They maintained peace both at home and abroad. Lucius Trebonius, a tribune of the plebs, was angry with the senate because, as he said, he had been hoodwinked by them in the co-optation of tribunes, and left in the lurch by his colleagues. He brought in a measure providing that when tribunes of the plebs were to be elected, the presiding magistrate should continue to hold the election until ten tribunes were elected. He spent his year of office in worrying the patricians, which led to his receiving the nickname of Asper," (i.e. "the Cantankerous").

The next consuls were Marcus Geganius Macerinus and Gaius Julius. They appeased the quarrels which had broken out between the tribunes and the younger members of the nobility without interfering with the powers of the former or compromising the dignity of the patricians. A levy had been decreed by the senate for service against the Volscians and Aequi, but they kept the plebs quiet by holding it over, and publicly asserting that when the City was at peace everything abroad was quiet, whereas civil discord encouraged the enemy. Their care for peace led to harmony at home. But the one order was always restless when the other showed moderation. Whilst the plebs was quiet it began to be subjected to acts of violence from the younger patricians. The tribunes tried to protect the weaker side, but they did little good at first, and soon even they themselves were not exempt from ill-treatment, especially in later months of their year of office. Secret combinations amongst the stronger party resulted in lawlessness, and the exercise of the tribunitian authority usually slackened towards the close of the year. Any hopes the plebeians might place in their tribunes depended upon their having men like Icilius; the last two years they had had mere names. On the other hand, the older patricians realised that their younger members were too aggressive, but if there were to be excesses they preferred that their own side should commit them rather than their opponents. So difficult is it to observe moderation in the defence of liberty, while each man under the pretence of equality raises himself only by keeping others down, and by their very precautions against fear men make themselves feared, and in repelling injury from ourselves we inflict it on others as though there were no alternative between doing wrong and suffering it.

Noui tribuni plebis in cooptandis collegis patrum uoluntatem fouerunt; duos etiam patricios consularesque, Sp. Tarpeium et A. Aternium, cooptauere. Consules creati Sp. Herminius T. Verginius Caelimontanus, nihil magnopere ad patrum aut plebis causam inclinati, otium domi ac foris habuere. L. Trebonius tribunus plebis, infestus patribus quod se ab iis in cooptandis tribunis fraude captum proditumque a collegis aiebat, rogationem tulit ut qui plebem Romanam tribunos plebei rogaret, is usque eo rogaret dum decem tribunos plebei faceret; insectandisque patribus, unde Aspero etiam inditum est cognomen, tribunatum gessit. Inde M. Geganius Macerinus et C. Iulius consules facti contentiones tribunorum aduersus nobilium iuuentutem ortas, sine insectatione potestatis eius conseruata maiestate patrum, sedauere; plebem, decreto ad bellum Volscorum et Aequorum dilectu, sustinendo rem ab seditionibus continuere, urbano otio foris quoque omnia tranquilla esse adfirmantes, per discordias ciuiles externos tollere animos. Cura pacis concordiae quoque intestinae causa fuit. Sed alter semper ordo grauis alterius modestiae erat; quiescenti plebi ab iunioribus patrum iniuriae fieri coeptae. Vbi tribuni auxilio humilioribus essent, in primis parum proderat; deinde ne ipsi quidem inuiolati erant, utique postremis mensibus, cum et per coitiones potentiorum iniuria fieret et uis potestatis omnis aliquanto posteriore anni parte languidior ferme esset. Iamque plebs ita in tribunatu ponere aliquid spei, si similes Icilio tribunos haberet: nomina tantum se biennio habuisse. Seniores contra patrum ut nimis feroces suos credere iuuenes, ita malle, si modus excedendus esset, suis quam aduersariis superesse animos. Adeo moderatio tuendae libertatis, dum aequari uelle simulando ita se quisque extollit ut deprimat alium, in difficili est, cauendoque ne metuant, homines metuendos ultro se efficiunt, et iniuriam ab nobis repulsam, tamquam aut facere aut pati necesse sit, iniungimus aliis.