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History of Rome (Ab Urbe Condita) by Livy
Translated by Rev. Canon Roberts
Book VII Chapter 23: Defeat of the Gauls.[350 BC]
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Marcus Popilius Laenas was the consul elected from the plebs, Lucius Cornelius Scipio, the one from the patricians. Fortune conferred the greater distinction upon the plebeian consul, for upon the receipt of information that an immense army of Gauls had encamped in the territory of Latium, the conduct of that war, owing to Scipio's serious illness at the time, was entrusted by special arrangement to Popilius. He promptly raised an army, and ordered all who were liable for active service to meet under arms outside the Capene Gate, the temple of Mars; the quaestors were ordered to carry the standards from the treasury to the same place. After bringing up four legions to full strength, he handed over the rest of the troops to Publius Valerius Publicola, the praetor, and advised the senate to raise a second army to protect the republic against any emergency.

When all preparations were completed and everything in readiness, he advanced towards the enemy. With the view of ascertaining their strength before testing it in a decisive action, he seized some rising ground as near to the camp of the Gauls as possible and began to construct the rampart. When the Gauls saw the Roman standards in the distance they formed their line, prepared, with their usual impulsiveness and instinctive love of fighting, to engage at once. Observing, however, that the Romans did not come down into the plain and were trusting to the protection of their position and their rampart, they imagined that they were smitten with fear, and at the same time would be more open to attack whilst they were occupied in the work of entrenchment. So raising a wild shout they advanced to the attack. The triarii, who formed the working party, were not interrupted, for they were screened by the hastati and principes who were posted in front and who began the fighting. Their steady courage was aided by the fact that they were on higher ground, for the pila and hastae were not thrown ineffectively as often happens on level ground, but being carried forward by their weight they reached their mark. The Gauls were borne down by the weight of the missiles which either pierced their bodies or stuck in their shields, making them extremely heavy to carry. They had almost reached the top of the hill in their charge when they halted, uncertain what to do. The mere delay raised the courage of the Romans and depressed that of the enemy. Then the Roman line swept down upon them and forced them back; they fell over each other and caused a greater loss in this way than that inflicted by the enemy; so headlong was their flight that more were crushed to death than were slain by the sword.

Event: Third war with the Gauls

M. Popilius Laenas a plebe consul, a patribus L. Cornelius Scipio datus. Fortuna quoque inlustriorem plebeium consulem fecit; nam cum ingentem Gallorum exercitum in agro Latino castra posuisse nuntiatum esset, Scipione graui morbo implicito Gallicum bellum Popilio extra ordinem datum. Is impigre exercitu scripto, cum omnes extra portam Capenam ad Martis aedem conuenire armatos iuniores iussisset signaque eodem quaestores ex aerario deferre, quattuor expletis legionibus, quod superfuit militum P. Valerio Publicolae praetori tradidit, auctor patribus scribendi alterius exercitus, quod ad incertos belli euentus subsidium rei publicae esset. Ipse iam satis omnibus instructis comparatisque ad hostem pergit; cuius ut prius nosceret uires quam periculo ultimo temptaret, in tumulo, quem proximum castris Gallorum capere potuit, uallum ducere coepit. Gens ferox et ingenii auidi ad pugnam cum procul uisis Romanorum signis ut extemplo proelium initura explicuisset aciem, postquam neque in aequum demitti agmen uidit et cum loci altitudine tum uallo etiam tegi Romanos, perculsos pauore rata, simul opportuniores quod intenti tum maxime operi essent, truci clamore adgreditur. Ab Romanis nec opus intermissum— triarii erant, qui muniebant—et ab hastatis principibusque, qui pro munitoribus intenti armatique steterunt, proelium initum. Praeter uirtutem locus quoque superior adiuuit, ut pila omnia hastaeque non tamquam ex aequo missa uana, quod plerumque fit, caderent sed omnia librata ponderibus figerentur; oneratique telis Galli, quibus aut corpora transfixa aut praegrauata inhaerentibus gerebant scuta, cum cursu paene in aduersum subissent, primo incerti restitere; dein, cum ipsa cunctatio et his animos minuisset et auxisset hosti, impulsi retro ruere alii super alios stragemque inter se caede ipsa foediorem dare; adeo praecipiti turba obtriti plures quam ferro necati.