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Quote of the day: When he drank his destruction at Babylon
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History of Rome (Ab Urbe Condita) by Livy
Translated by Rev. Canon Roberts
Book VII Chapter 15: Victory on the Gauls.[357 BC]
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The Gauls directed their fiercest attack upon the Roman right, and the dictator's [Note 1] presence with that division alone prevented the attack from succeeding. When he saw the men wavering he called out sharply to Sextius and asked him if this was the way in which he had pledged his soldiers to fight. "Where," he cried, "are the shouts of the men who clamoured for arms? Where are their threats of going into battle without their commander's orders? Here is the commander, calling loudly to them to fight, and himself fighting in the forefront of the battle; who out of all those who were just now going to lead the way was following him? Braggarts in camp, cowards in battle!" They felt the truth of what they heard, and they were so stung by a sense of shame that they rushed on the enemy's weapons without any thought of danger. They charged like madmen and threw the enemy's lines into confusion, and a cavalry attack which followed turned the confusion into rout. As soon as the dictator saw their line broken in this part of the field he turned the attack on to their left, where he saw them closing up into a crowded mass, and at the same time gave the agreed signal to those on the mountain. When a fresh battle shout arose and these were seen crossing the mountain slope in the direction of the Gauls' camp, the enemy, afraid of being cut off, gave up the fight and ran in wild disorder to their camp. They were met by Marcus Valerius, the Master of the Horse, who after putting their right wing to flight was riding up to their lines, and he turned their flight towards the mountain and woods. A great many were intercepted by the muleteers whom they took for cavalry, and a terrible slaughter took place amongst those whom panic had driven into the woods after the main battle was over.

No one since Camillus celebrated a more justly deserved triumph over the Gauls than Gaius Sulpicius. A large quantity of gold taken out of the spoil was dedicated by him and stored away in a vault beneath the Capitol.

The campaigns in which the consuls for the year were engaged ended in a very different way. Whilst the Hernici were defeated and reduced to submission by his colleague, [Note 2] Fabius showed a sad want of caution and skill in his operations against the Tarquinians . The humiliation which Rome incurred through his defeat was embittered by the barbarity of the enemy, who sacrificed 307 prisoners of war. That defeat was followed by a sudden predatory incursion of the Privernates and afterwards by one in which the Veliternians took part.

In this year two additional tribes were formed -- the Pomptine and the Publilian. The Games which Camillus had vowed when dictator were celebrated [Note 3]. A measure dealing with improper canvassing was for the first time submitted to the people, after passing the senate, by Gaius Poetilius, tribune of the plebs. It was intended to check the canvassing, mainly by rich plebeians, in the markets and promiscuous gatherings.

Note 1: dictator = Gaius Sulpicius
Note 2: colleague = Gaius Plautius
Note 3: There is probably some mistake here. Those mentioned in Book V, Chapter 19 as being vowed before the capture of Veii had been celebrated shortly before the Gaulish invasion (ch. 31). Livy probably wrote Servilius instead of Camillus, and the error may be due to a copyist. The vow which Servilius made is mentioned in chap. XI.

Events: Second war with the Gauls, War with the Hernici, War with the Tarquinians, War with Privernum

Acrius inuasere Galli dextro cornu; neque sustineri potuissent, ni forte eo loco dictator fuisset, Sex. Tullium nomine increpans rogitansque sicine pugnaturos milites spopondisset? Vbi illi clamores sint arma poscentium, ubi minae iniussu imperatoris proelium inituros? En ipsum imperatorem clara uoce uocare ad proelium et ire armatum ante prima signa; ecquis sequeretur eorum qui modo ducturi fuerint, in castris feroces, in acie pauidi? Vera audiebant; itaque tantos pudor stimulos admouit, ut ruerent in hostium tela alienatis a memoria periculi animis. Hic primo impetus prope uecors turbauit hostes, eques deinde emissus turbatos auertit. Ipse dictator, post quam labantem una parte uidit aciem, signa in laeuum cornu confert, quo turbam hostium congregari cernebat, et iis qui in monte erant signum quod conuenerat dedit. Vbi inde quoque nouus clamor ortus est et tendere obliquo monte ad castra Gallorum uisi sunt, tum metu ne excluderentur omissa pugna est cursuque effuso ad castra ferebantur. Vbi cum occurrisset eis M. Valerius magister equitum, qui profligato dextro cornu obequitabat hostium munimentis, ad montes siluasque uertunt fugam plurimique ibi a fallaci equitum specie agasonibusque excepti sunt; et eorum, quos pauor pertulerat in siluas, atrox caedes post sedatum proelium fuit. Nec alius post M. Furium quam C. Sulpicius iustiorem de Gallis egit triumphum. Auri quoque ex Gallicis spoliis satis magnum pondus saxo quadrato saeptum in Capitolio sacrauit. Eodem anno et a consulibus uario euentu bellatum; nam Hernici a C. Plautio deuicti subactique sunt, Fabius collega eius incaute atque inconsulte aduersus Tarquinienses pugnauit. Nec in acie tantum ibi cladis acceptum quam quod trecentos septem milites Romanos captos Tarquinienses immolarunt; qua foeditate supplicii aliquanto ignominia populi Romani insignitior fuit. Accessit ad eam cladem et uastatio Romani agri, quam Priuernates, Veliterni deinde, incursione repentina fecerunt. Eodem anno duae tribus, Pomptina et Publilia, additae; ludi uotiui, quos M. Furius dictator uouerat, facti; et de ambitu ab C. Poetelio tribuno plebis auctoribus patribus tum primum ad populum latum est; eaque rogatione nouorum maxime hominum ambitionem, qui nundinas et conciliabula obire soliti erant, compressam credebant.