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History of Rome (Ab Urbe Condita) by Livy
Translated by Rev. Canon Roberts
Book III Chapter 18: Recovering the Capitol.[460 BC]
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The same night messengers reached Tusculum with tidings of the capture of the Citadel, the seizure of the Capitol, and the generally disturbed state of the City. Lucius Mamilius was at that time dictator of Tusculum. After hurriedly convening the senate and introducing the messengers, he strongly urged the senators not to wait until envoys arrived from Rome begging for help; the fact of the danger and the seriousness of the crisis, the gods who watched over alliances, and loyalty to treaties, all demanded instant action. Never again would the gods vouchsafe so favourable an opportunity for conferring an obligation on so powerful a State or one so close to their own doors. They decided that help should be sent, the men of military age were enrolled, arms were distributed. As they approached Rome in the early dawn, they presented in the distance the appearance of enemies; it seemed as though Aequi or Volscians were coming. When this groundless alarm was removed they were admitted into the City and marched in order into the Forum, where Publius Valerius, who had left his colleague [Note 1] to direct the troops on guard at the gates, was forming his army for battle. It was his authority that had achieved this result; he declared that if, when the Capitol was recovered and the City pacified they would allow the covert dishonesty of the Law which the tribunes supported to be explained to them, he would not oppose the holding of a plebeian Assembly, for he was not unmindful of his ancestors or of the name he bore, which made the protection of the plebs, so to speak, a hereditary care. Following his leadership, amid the futile protests of the tribunes, they marched in order of battle up the Capitoline hill, the legion from Tusculum marching with them. The Romans and their allies were striving which should have the glory of recapturing the Citadel. Each of the commanders were encouraging his men. Then the enemy lost heart, their only confidence was in the strength of their position; whilst thus demoralised the Romans and allies advanced to the charge. They had already forced their way into the vestibule of the temple, when Publius Valerius, who was in the front, cheering on his men, was killed. Publius Volumnius, a man of consular rank saw him fall. Directing his men to protect the body, he ran to the front and took the consul's place. In the heat of their charge the soldiers were not aware of the loss they had sustained; they gained the victory before they knew that they were fighting without a general. Many of the exiles defiled the temple with their blood, many were taken prisoners, Herdonius was killed. So the Capitol was recovered. Punishment was inflicted on the prisoners according to their condition, whether slave or freeman; a vote of thanks was accorded to the Tusculans; the Capitol was cleansed and solemnly purified. It is stated that the plebeians threw quadrantes into the consul's house that he might have a more splendid funeral.

Note 1: colleague = Gaius Claudius

Event: The Capitol surprised and taken

Eadem nocte et Tusculum de arce capta Capitolioque occupato et alio turbatae urbis statu nuntii ueniunt. L. Mamilius Tusculi tum dictator erat. Is confestim conuocato senatu atque introductis nuntiis magnopere censet, ne exspectent dum ab Roma legati auxilium petentes ueniant; periculum ipsum discrimenque ac sociales deos fidemque foederum id poscere; demerendi beneficio tam potentem, tam propinquam ciuitatem nunquam parem occasionem daturos deos. Placet ferri auxilium; iuuentus conscribitur, arma dantur. Romam prima luce uenientes procul speciem hostium praebuere; Aequi aut Volsci uenire uisi sunt; deinde ubi uanus terror abiit, accepti in urbem agmine in forum descendunt. Ibi iam P. Valerius relicto ad portarum praesidia collega instruebat aciem. Auctoritas uiri mouerat, adfirmantis Capitolio reciperato et urbe pacata si edoceri se sissent quae fraus ab tribunis occulta in lege ferretur, memorem se maiorum suorum, memorem cognominis quo populi colendi uelut hereditaria cura sibi a maioribus tradita esset, concilium plebis non impediturum. Hunc ducem secuti nequiquam reclamantibus tribunis in cliuum Capitolinum erigunt aciem. Adiungitur et Tusculana legio. Certare socii ciuesque utri reciperatae arcis suum decus facerent; dux uterque suos adhortatur. Trepidare tum hostes nec ulli satis rei praeterquam loco fidere; trepidantibus inferrunt signa Romani sociique. Iam in uestibulum perruperant templi cum P. Valerius inter primores pugnam ciens interficitur. P. Volumnius consularis uidit cadentem. Is dato negotio suis ut corpus obtegerent, ipse in locum uicemque consulis prouolat. Prae ardore impetuque tantae rei sensus non peruenit ad militem; prius uicit quam se pugnare sine duce sentiret. Multi exsulum caede sua foedauere templum, multi uiui capti, Herdonius interfectus. Ita Capitolium reciperatum. De captiuis, ut quisque liber aut seruus esset, suae fortunae a quoque sumptum supplicium est. Tusculanis gratiae actae, Capitolium purgatum atque lustratum. In consulis domum plebes quadrantes ut funere ampliore efferretur iactasse fertur.