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History of Rome (Ab Urbe Condita) by Livy
Translated by Rev. Canon Roberts
Book X Chapter 12: Commencement of the Third Samnite War.[298 BC]
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The discussion in the senate was brief. The members unanimously decided that a treaty of close alliance should be made with the Lucanians and satisfaction demanded from the Samnites. When the envoys were readmitted, they received a favourable reply and a treaty was concluded with them. The fetials were sent to insist upon the evacuation by the Samnites of the territories of the allies of Rome and the withdrawal of their forces from the Lucanian frontiers. They were met by emissaries from the Samnites, who warned them that if they appeared in any of the Samnite councils their inviolability would be no longer respected. On this being reported in Rome, the Assembly confirmed the resolution passed by the senate and ordered war to be made upon the Samnites.

In the allotment of their respective commands Etruria fell to Scipio and the Samnites to Fulvius. Both consuls took the field.

Scipio, who was anticipating a tedious campaign similar to the one of the previous year, was met by the enemy in battle formation at Volaterrae. The contest lasted the greater part of the day, with heavy loss on both sides. Night came on whilst they were still uncertain with whom the victory lay; the following morning made it clear, for the Etruscans had abandoned their camp in the dead of the night. When the Romans marched out to battle and saw that the enemy had by their action admitted their defeat, they went on to the deserted camp. This they took possession of, and as it was a standing camp and had been hurriedly abandoned, they secured a considerable amount of booty. The troops were marched back into the neighbourhood of Falerii, and after leaving the baggage with a small escort there they proceeded, in light marching order, to harry the Etruscan land. Everything was laid waste with fire and sword; prey was driven in from all sides. Not only was the soil left an absolute waste for the enemy, but their fortified posts and villages were burnt. The Romans refrained from attacking the cities in which the terrified Etruscans had sought shelter.

Gnaeus Fulvius sought a brilliant action at Bovianum in Samnium, and gained a decisive victory. He then carried Bovianum by storm, and not long afterwards Aufidena.

Event: Fourth war with Samnites

Breuis consultatio senatus fuit; ad unum omnes iungendum foedus cum Lucanis resque repetendas ab Samnitibus censent. Benigne responsum Lucanis ictumque foedus. Fetiales missi, qui Samnitem decedere agro sociorum ac deducere exercitum finibus Lucanis iuberent; quibus obuiam missi ab Samnitibus qui denuntiarent, si quod adissent in Samnio concilium, haud inuiolatos abituros. Haec postquam audita sunt Romae, bellum Samnitibus et patres censuerunt et populus iussit. Consules inter se prouincias partiti sunt: Scipioni Etruria, Fuluio Samnites obuenerunt, diuersique ad suum quisque bellum proficiscuntur. Scipioni segne bellum et simile prioris anni militiae exspectanti hostes ad Volaterras instructo agmine occurrerunt. Pugnatum maiore parte diei magna utrimque caede; nox incertis qua data uictoria esset interuenit. Lux insequens uictorem uictumque ostendit; nam Etrusci silentio noctis castra reliquerunt. Romanus egressus in aciem, ubi profectione hostium concessam uictoriam uidet, progressus ad castra uacuis cum plurima praeda—nam et statiua et trepide deserta fuerant—potitur. Inde in Faliscum agrum copiis reductis, cum impedimenta Faleriis cum modico praesidio reliquisset, expedito agmine ad populandos hostium fines incedit. Omnia ferro ignique uastantur; praedae undique actae. Nec solum modo uastum hosti relictum sed castellis etiam uicisque inlatus ignis: urbibus oppugnandis temperatum, in quas timor Etruscos compulerat. Cn. Fului consulis clara pugna in Samnio ad Bouianum haudquaquam ambiguae uictoriae fuit. Bouianum inde adgressus nec ita multo post Aufidenam ui cepit.