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Translated by Rev. Canon Roberts
Book VIII Chapter 11: The Revolt of the Latins and Campanians. The end.[340 BC]
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Although the memory of every traditional custom relating to either human or divine things has been lost through our abandonment of the old religion of our fathers in favour of foreign novelties, I thought it not alien from my subject to record these regulations in the very words in which they have been handed down. |
In some authors I find it stated that it was only after the battle was over that the Samnites who had been waiting to see the result came to support the Romans. Assistance was also coming to the Latins from Lanuvium whilst time was being wasted in deliberation, but whilst they were starting and a part of their column was already on the march, news came of the defeat of the Latins. They faced about and re-entered their city and it is stated that Milionius, their praetor, remarked that for that very short march they would have to pay a heavy price to Rome. Those of the Latins who survived the battle retreated by many different routes, and gradually assembled in the city of Vescia. Here the leaders met to discuss the situation, and Numisius assured them that both armies had really experienced the same fortune and an equal amount of bloodshed; the Romans enjoyed no more than the name of victory, in every other respect they were as good as defeated. The head-quarters of both consuls were polluted with blood; the one [Note 1] had murdered his son [Note 2], the other [Note 3] had devoted himself to death; their whole army was massacred, their hastati and principes killed; the companies both in front of and behind the standards had suffered enormous losses; the triarii in the end saved the situation. The Latin troops, it was true, were equally cut up, but Latium and the Volsci could supply reinforcements more quickly than Rome. If, therefore, they approved, he would at once call out the fighting men from the Latin and Volscian peoples and march back with an army to Capua, and would take the Romans unawares; a battle was the last thing they were expecting. He despatched misleading letters throughout Latium and the Volscian country, those who had not been engaged in the battle being the more ready to believe what he said, and a hastily levied body of militia, drawn from all quarters, was got together. This army was met by the consul at Trifanum, a place between Sinuessa and Menturnae. Without waiting even to choose the sites for their camps, the two armies piled their baggage, fought and finished the war, for the Latins were so utterly worsted that when the consul with his victorious army was preparing to ravage their territory, they made a complete surrender and the Campanians followed their example.
Latium and Capua were deprived of their territory. The Latin territory, including that of Privernum, together with the Falernian, which had belonged to the Campanians as far as the Volturnus, was distributed amongst the Roman plebs. They received two jugera a head in the Latin territory, their allotment being made up by three-quarters of a jugerum in the Privernate district; in the Falernian district they received three entire jugera, the additional quarter being allowed owing to the distance. The Laurentes, amongst the Latins and the aristocracy of the Campanians, were not thus penalised because they had not revolted. An order was made for the treaty with the Laurentes to be renewed, and it has since been renewed annually on the tenth day after the Latin Festival. The Roman franchise was conferred on the aristocracy of Campania, and a brazen tablet recording the fact was fastened up in Rome in the temple of Castor, and the people of Campania were ordered to pay them each -- they numbered 1600 in all -- the sum of 450 denarii annually.
|Etsi omnis diuini humanique moris memoria aboleuit noua peregrinaque omnia priscis ac patriis praeferendo, haud ab re duxi uerbis quoque ipsis, ut tradita nuncupataque sunt, referre. Romanis post proelium demum factum Samnites uenisse subsidio exspectato euentu pugnae apud quosdam auctores inuenio. Latinis quoque ab Lauinio auxilium, dum deliberando terunt tempus, uictis demum ferri coeptum; et, cum iam portis prima signa et pars agminis esset egressa, nuntio allato de clade Latinorum cum conuersis signis retro in urbem rediretur, praetorem eorum nomine Milionium dixisse ferunt pro paulula uia magnam mercedem esse Romanis soluendam. qui Latinorum pugnae superfuerant, multis itineribus dissipati cum se in unum conglobassent, Vescia urbs eis receptaculum fuit. ibi in conciliis Numisius imperator eorum, adfirmando communem uere Martem belli utramque aciem pari caede prostrauisse uictoriaeque nomen tantum penes Romanos esse, ceteram pro uictis fortunam et illos gerere; funesta duo consulum praetoria, alterum parricidio filii, alterum consulis deuoti caede; trucidatum exercitum omnem, caesos hastatos principesque, stragem et ante signa et post signa factam; triarios postremo rem restituisse. Latinorum etsi pariter accisae copiae sint, tamen supplemento uel Latium propius esse uel Volscos quam Romam; itaque si uideatur eis, se ex Latinis et ex Volscis populis iuuentute propere excita rediturum infesto exercitu Capuam esse Romanosque nihil tum minus quam proelium exspectantes necopinato aduentu perculsurum. fallacibus litteris circa Latium nomenque Volscum missis, quia qui non interfuerant pugnae ad credendum temere faciliores erant, tumultuarius undique exercitus raptim conscriptus conuenit. huic agmini Torquatus consul ad Trifanum + inter Sinuessam Minturnasque is locus est + occurrit. priusquam castris locus caperetur, sarcinis utrimque in aceruum coniectis pugnatum debellatumque est; adeo enim accisae res sunt ut consuli uictorem exercitum ad depopulandos agros eorum ducenti dederent se omnes Latini deditionemque eam Campani sequerentur. Latium Capuaque agro multati. Latinus ager Priuernati addito agro et Falernus, qui populi Campani fuerat, usque ad Volturnum flumen plebi Romanae diuiditur. bina in Latino iugera ita ut dodrante ex Priuernati complerent data, terna in Falerno quadrantibus etiam pro longinquitate adiectis. extra poenam fuere Latinorum Laurentes Campanorumque equites, quia non desciuerant; cum Laurentibus renouari foedus iussum renouaturque ex eo quotannis post diem decimum Latinarum. equitibus Campanis ciuitas Romana data, monumentoque ut esset, aeneam tabulam in aede Castoris Romae fixerunt. uectigal quoque eis Campanus populos iussus pendere in singulos quotannis + fuere autem mille et sexcenti + denarios nummos quadringenos quinquagenos.|