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Translated by Rev. Canon Roberts
Book IV Chapter 30: Truce with the Aequi -- Internal Affairs.[430-27 BC]
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In the City the tribunes made great efforts to secure the election of consular tribunes for the next year, but they failed. Lucius Papirius Crassus and Lucius Julius were made consuls. Envoys came from the Aequi to ask from the senate a treaty as between independent States; instead of this they were offered peace on condition they acknowledged the supremacy of Rome; they obtained a truce for eight years. After the defeat which the Volscians had sustained on Algidus, their State was distracted by obstinate and bitter quarrels between the advocates of war and those of peace. There was quiet for Rome in all quarters. The tribunes were preparing a popular measure to fix the scale of fines, but one of their body betrayed the fact to the consuls, who anticipated the tribunes by bringing it in themselves. |
They were followed by Aulus Cornelius Cossus, and Titus Quinctius Poenus for the second time. The Veientines made inroads into the Roman territory, and it was rumoured that some of the Fidenates had taken part in them. Lucius Sergius, Quintus Servilius, and Mamercus Aemilius were commissioned to investigate the affair. Some were interned at Ostia, as they were unable to account satisfactorily for their absence from Fidenae at that time. The number of colonists was increased, and the lands of those who had perished in the war were assigned to them.
Very great distress was caused this year by a drought. Not only was there an absence of water from the heavens, but the earth, through lack of its natural moisture, barely sufficed to keep the rivers flowing. In some cases the want of water made the cattle die of thirst round the dried-up springs and brooks, in others they were carried off by the mange. This disease spread to the men who had been in contact with them; at first it attacked the slaves and agriculturists, then the City was infected. Nor was it only the body that was affected by the pest, the minds of men also became a prey to all kinds of superstitions, mostly foreign ones. Pretended soothsayers went about introducing new modes of sacrificing, and did a profitable trade amongst the victims of superstition, until at last the sight of strange un-Roman modes of propitiating the wrath of the gods in the streets and chapels brought home to the leaders of the common-wealth the public scandal which was being caused. The aediles were instructed to see to it that none but Roman deities were worshipped, nor in any other than the established fashion.
War with Veii.
Hostilities the Veientines were postponed till the following year, when Gaius Servilius Ahala and Lucius Papirius Mugilanus were the consuls. Even then the formal declaration of war and the despatch of troops were delayed on religious grounds; it was considered necessary that the fetials should first be sent to demand satisfaction. There had been recent battles with the Veientines at Nomentum and Fidenae, and a truce had been made, not a lasting peace, but before the days of truce had expired they had renewed hostilities. The fetials, however, were sent, but when they presented their demands, in accordance with ancient usage, they were refused a hearing. A question then arose whether war should be declared by the mandate of the people, or whether a resolution passed by the senate was sufficient. The tribunes threatened to stop the levying of troops and succeeded in forcing the consul Quinctius to refer the question to the people. The centuries decided unanimously for war. The plebs gained a further advantage in preventing the election of consuls for the next year.
Event: War with Veii
|Agitatum in urbe ab tribunis plebis ut tribuni militum consulari potestate crearentur nec obtineri potuit. Consules fiunt L. Papirius Crassus, L. Iulius. Aequorum legati foedus ab senatu cum petissent et pro foedere deditio ostentaretur, indutias annorum octo impetrauerunt: Volscorum res, super acceptam in Algido cladem, pertinaci certamine inter pacis bellique auctores in iurgia et seditiones versa: undique otium fuit Romanis. Legem de multarum aestimatione pergratam populo cum ab tribunis parari consules unius ex collegio proditione excepissent, ipsi praeoccupauerunt ferre. Consules L. Sergius Fidenas iterum Hostius Lucretius Tricipitinus. Nihil dignum dictu actum his consulibus. Secuti eos consules A. Cornelius Cossus T. Quinctius Poenus iterum. Veientes in agrum Romanum excursiones fecerunt. Fama fuit quosdam ex Fidenatium iuventute participes eius populationis fuisse, cognitioque eius rei L. Sergio et Q. Seruilio et Mam. Aemilio permissa. Quidam Ostiam relegati, quod cur per eos dies a Fidenis afuissent parum constabat; colonorum additus numerus, agerque iis bello interemptorum adsignatus. Siccitate eo anno plurimum laboratum est, nec caelestes modo defuerunt aquae, sed terra quoque ingenito umore egens vix ad perennes suffecit amnes. Defectus alibi aquarum circa torridos fontes riuosque stragem siti pecorum morientum dedit; scabie alia absumpta, volgatique in homines morbi. Et primo in agrestes ingruerant seruitiaque; urbs deinde impletur. Nec corpora modo adfecta tabo, sed animos quoque multiplex religio et pleraque externa invasit, novos ritus sacrificandi uaticinando inferentibus in domos quibus quaestui sunt capti superstitione animi, donec publicus iam pudor ad primores civitatis pervenit, cernentes in omnibus vicis sacellisque peregrina atque insolita piacula pacis deum exposcendae. Datum inde negotium aedilibus, ut animadverterent ne qui nisi Romani di neu quo alio more quam patrio colerentur. Irae adversus Veientes in insequentem annum, C. Seruilium Ahalam L. Papirium Mugillanum consules, dilatae sunt. Tunc quoque ne confestim bellum indiceretur neue exercitus mitterentur religio obstitit; fetiales prius mittendos ad res repetendas censuere. Cum Veientibus nuper acie dimicatum ad Nomentum et Fidenas fuerat, indutiaeque inde, non pax facta, quarum et dies exierat, et ante diem rebellauerant; missi tamen fetiales; nec eorum, cum more patrum iurati repeterent res, verba sunt audita. Controversia inde fuit utrum populi iussu indiceretur bellum an satis esset senatus consultum. Peruicere tribuni, denuntiando impedituros se dilectum, ut Quinctius consul de bello ad populum ferret. Omnes centuriae iussere. In eo quoque plebs superior fuit, quod tenuit ne consules in proximum annum crearentur.|