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Quote of the day: Tiberius too thoroughly understood the a
Scotland in Roman times. People from Scotland

The Southern part belonged at some time to the Roman empire. It did not have a definitive Roman designation. Caledonia was used by some people. It was separated from Roman England by the Hadrian wall (122 AD) and the Antonine Wall (142 AD), which was a little north of the contempory border.  The last was soon abandoned.

This list is far from complete.
There is not always an 1:1 relation between a place etc. in Roman times and a name in our days.
Sometimes a people giving their name to a place and that place are combined.
Some names are followed by a link to a site with that title
I tried to find suitable sites in English, but did not always succeed.
If you know better sites, please let me know.
Firth of Clyde(0) / Clota(2)
Firth of Forth(0) / Bodotria(2)
Graupian Mountains(1) / Grampius Mons(0)
Orkneys(0) / Orcades(2)
Picts(0) / Picti(0)
Shetland(0) / Farthest Thule(1) / Thule(2)